Vaccine Central

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Immunization rates in the United States are often lower among people born in another country. To avoid compounding the pandemic’s burden on refugee, immigrant, and migrant (RIM) communities, local governments must make vaccination more accessible. This will require overcoming barriers to vaccination due to:

  • Cultural factors
  • Knowledge and beliefs about a disease or vaccine
  • Healthcare access

Health departments, community-based organizations, and others have free access this initial set of resources that support with vaccine planning, roll-out, knowledge, and confidence among RIM communities. Please check back regularly as we will continue to update resources as they become available. 

Visual: Vaccine Journey

Follow the Vaccine Journey to learn all the considerations you need to examine as you plan your COVID-19 vaccination efforts. From social influences to transportation barriers to culturally aware staff, you can influence your organization every step of the way. 

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COVID-19 Vaccine Focus Groups - Note Taking Guide & Template
Focus group discussions (FGD) are an effective way to collect valuable information from communities about COVID-19 vaccines. FGDs can inform community education and vaccine roll-out efforts. This guide is intended for health departments, community-based organizations, and others interested in conducting FGDs. See the accompanying note taking guide and template for additional guidance. Download now

COVID-19 Vaccine Focus Groups - Facilitation Guide
Focus group discussions (FGD) are an effective way to collect valuable information from communities about COVID-19 vaccines. FGDs can inform community education and vaccine roll-out efforts. This guide is intended for health departments, community-based organizations, and others interested in conducting FGDs. See the accompanying note taking guide and template for additional guidance. Download now

Guide: Addressing Legal Concerns Around Immigration-Related Vaccine Hesitancy
Immigrants may have concerns about government authorities’ access to personal information provided at vaccine clinics. For some immigrants, even the notion of confidentiality in government processes is novel. Learn how to build partnerships ahead of vaccination clinics and how to design an affirming vaccination event. Download now

IDs and Insurance: Know Your Rights
This resource, created by Made to Save, answers commonly asked questions about COVID-19 vaccine eligibility and immigration status, health insurance status, and being asked for a valid ID. Download in English or Spanish

COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence Rapid Community Assessment Guide
The CDC has developed a rapid community assessment guide to help state and local health departments diagnose and address access and confidence challenges related to COVID-19 vaccines that specific communities may be experiencing.  Download now


COVID-19 Vaccination Toolkits (CDC)
The CDC has developed a series of audience-specific toolkits related to COVID-19 vaccination. Check this page regularly for the release of additional toolkits. Download now

Tips for ORR Grantees
Developed by NRC-RIM, this resource outlines ways that ORR-funded programs can provide COVID-19 vaccination outreach, education, and support to ORR-eligible clients and communities. Visit now

Common Questions, Helpful Responses
Many client-facing staff are receiving client questions related to the COVID-19 vaccine. Developed by NRC-RIM, this resource helps client-facing staff competently respond to common vaccine questions. Visit now

FAQs: The COVID-19 Vaccine and Migrant, Immigrant, and Food & Farm Worker Patients
This resource will be routinely updated to cover FAQs from health care providers about the COVID-19 vaccine and their migrant, immigrant, and food & farm worker patients. Download in English or Spanish

Content Validation Guidance and Checklist

Content validation is a structured process through which bilingual, bicultural community members review materials and provide critical feedback to ensure the material is appropriately designed and/or translated for the community it is trying to reach. This guide offers practical suggestions - including a checklist - for implementing a content validation process for your materials. Download now


Checklist: Vaccine Considerations to Reach Migrant and Immigrant Workers
This checklist outlines important considerations for health departments and vaccine clinics to reach migrant and immigrant workers. Download in English or Spanish

Checklist: COVID-19 Vaccine Roll-out among Refugees, Immigrants, and Migrants
Ensuring opportunities for COVID-19 vaccination among refugee, immigrant, and migrant communities is important. Consider the following actions when implementing vaccination campaigns among these communities. Download now

Guide for Mobile COVID-19 Vaccination Campaigns for Immigrant Dairy Workers
There are a number of important considerations when organizing vaccination campaigns for dairy workers from immigrant communities. This comprehensive resource offers practical guidance to vaccine event organizers. The guide covers step-by-step instructions on identifying community partners, planning the event, and implementing the event. Download now

Guide: Mobile COVID-19 Vaccination Campaigns for Refugee, Immigrant and Migrant (RIM) Communities
Bringing healthcare, including COVID-19 vaccinations to where people live, work, learn and play has promising potential to improve community engagement and communities. This guide is intended for health professionals, public health departments, and community organizations to help plan vaccination events for RIM communities. Download now

Recommendations for Welcoming and Inclusive Vaccination Sites 
The following recommendations are to build upon our shared goal of equitable and accessible community vaccination opportunities. These recommendations are being shared with all vaccine providers as a way to assure a positive vaccination experience for all communities. Download now

Addressing Misinformation

The Debunking Handbook 2020
This handbook summarizes the current state of the science of misinformation and its debunking. It represents the current consensus on the science of debunking for engaged citizens, policymakers, journalists, and other practitioners. Available in multiple languages. Download now

Vaccine Misinformation Management Field Guide
Unicef published a guide that aims to help organizations to address the global infodemic through the development of strategic and well-coordinated national action plans to rapidly counter vaccine misinformation and build demand for vaccination that are informed by social listening. Download now

The Road to COVID-19 Immunity: Building Trust and Combating Misinformation
The International Rescue Committee's (IRC) white paper identifies ways the international community can assist with efforts to build trust and combat misinformation about the COVID-19 vaccine. Download now


Outreach to Faith-Based Organizations During COVID-19
Faith-based organizations provide social and spiritual connections and play a critical role in providing and supporting social services within communities. Read these tips on how to connect and collaborate with faith-based organizations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Download now

Translations of V-Safe
V-safe is a program with the CDC that uses text messaging and web surveys to provide personalized health check-ins after someone receives a COVID-19 vaccine. V-safe is available in:

Promising Practices are strategies, approaches, or programs that have anecdotally shown to have a positive impact in some local settings, however, there is not yet enough research-based evidence to certify as a best practice.

 Submit your own Promising Practice

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Vaccine Campaign Partnerships with Faith-Based Organizations

Faith-based organizations frequently play an integral role within communities. Select this promising practice to learn more about involving faith-based organizations in vaccine campaigns.

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Vaccine Listening Sessions with Communities

A listening session is a facilitated discussion with a group of individuals aimed at collecting information about a specific topic. Listening sessions are an effective way to hear directly from communities about COVID-19-related topics, including vaccines. Select this promising practice to learn more about vaccine listening sessions. 

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Convenient Vaccine Access for Communities 

Bringing vaccines to communities, rather than relying on community members to find their way to medical services, is more efficient and has much greater efficacy. Select this promising practice to learn more.

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Mobile Vaccine Units to Serve Communities

Ensuring equitable barrier-free access to vaccines and accurate health information is especially critical for RIM communities to mitigate the disproportionate impacts of COVID-19.  Mobile vaccine units are proving to be a successful solution for ensuring COVID-19 vaccines reach RIM populations.

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Pop-Up COVID-19 Vaccine Sites

Through community partnerships, “pop-up” COVID-19 vaccine sites in locations such as apartment complexes are a promising practice to bring vaccines directly to the community.

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COVID-19 Vaccine Collaborative

Collaboratives are community engagement structures that facilitate communication between health departments and communities and are being used to support COVID-19 vaccine roll out.

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Facebook Videos to Engage Communities

The use of Facebook to share informational videos about COVID-19 among RIM communities and/or to deliver live content through the Facebook Live feature are promising practices for reaching RIM communities. 

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COVID Champions: Trusted Faith Leaders

A COVID-19 Champion is someone who helps disseminate accurate information on public health and safety, local support services, and their own experiences relating to COVID-19 to specific communities, including related to COVID-19 vaccines.

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Culturally Specific Vaccine Information Broadcasts

By partnering with media outlets that are trusted in the community, vaccine messages can be culturally tailored and address unique concerns.

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Pop-Up Vaccination Events at Community Clinics

Offering vaccinations through pop-up events at community clinics already familiar to refugee, immigrant, and migrant (RIM) communities is a promising practice to support equitable and efficient vaccine distribution.

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Physician-Driven Vaccine Outreach

Physicians and other healthcare providers are frequently viewed as leaders and trusted sources of information, especially if they are from the communities they serve. 

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Embedding Equity throughout the COVID-19 Response Organizational Structure

It is essential to integrate considerations for refugee, immigrant, and migrant communities into all aspects of public health response efforts. Read more about the Minnesota Department of Health’s work to embed equity throughout the COVID-19 response organizational structure. 

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Vaccine Ambassadors Program

The Vaccine Ambassador program is led by a state health department and supports community members to serve as trusted messengers of COVID-19 vaccine information.

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Partnerships with Consulates

Engaging with consulates is a strategy for building or enhancing relationships with refugee, immigrant, and migrant communities. 

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Partnerships with Refugee Resettlement Agencies

Refugee resettlement agencies are deeply rooted in RIM communities and are uniquely positioned to partner with health departments to reach community members during COVID-19 response efforts.

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Multilingual COVID-19 Vaccine Education Workshops

COVID-19 vaccine education workshops, facilitated in a language the community member understands, increases trust, and helps RIM community members make informed decisions about COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their communities.

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Referral Systems for Vaccine Access

Community mapping is a virtual mapping method created through community engagement that elicits local community members and their networks and is a powerful tool to identify and reach RIM communities.

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COVID-19 Vaccine Sign Up through Trusted Messengers

One strategy to address vaccine sign up challenges is to encourage COVID-19 vaccine registration through trusted messengers. These messengers, oftentimes community leaders, will be uniquely positioned to deliver culturally and linguistically appropriate COVID-19 vaccine information and be able to interpret and translate relevant information for COVID-19 vaccine registration.

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Using Facebook Groups to Navigate the COVID-19 Vaccine Sign-Up Process

Using Facebook groups to connect individuals to assistance with COVID-19 vaccine sign up is an emerging promising practice to address barriers that some community members may face. 

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Assisting Migrants Accessing Second COVID-19 Vaccine Doses

Tracking vaccine doses for migrants is a necessary step towards providing accessible and equitable healthcare for migrants, and can make getting second COVID-19 vaccine doses easier, resulting in a successful completion of the second shot in a two-dose vaccine. 

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Initiating the COVID-19 Vaccine Conversation through Flyers

Dispelling myths and alleviating apprehensions around vaccination requires a trusted relationship and a safe, non-judgmental environment for individuals to voice their concerns and ask questions. Initiating COVID-19 vaccine conversations through flyers is a creative way to use a traditional communication method.

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Phone Trees to Facilitate Vaccine Access

To respond effectively to COVID-19 and to longstanding health inequities made worse by the pandemic, it is essential to leverage community strengths and trusted community networks. Phone trees are one strategy to disseminate important public health information during the pandemic.

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Using Storytelling to Increase Vaccine Confidence

The availability of accurate COVID-19 information that is culturally- and linguistically relevant is essential to keeping communities safe. Use testimonials that portray real stories from community members to communicate trusted information and make positive behavior changes.

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Research has shown that people are more likely to become vaccinated if they are knowledgeable about both the disease and the vaccine that protects them from infection.

Community Engagement is Key

Members of any community know best how to communicate with their peers, which is why we advocate for community involvement as a central element to any COVID-19 response. Learn more

Culturally-Relevant Messaging

When developing your messaging, make sure you cater to the community's needs and preferences with regard to trusted messengers, literacy level and format. You'll also need to answer their questions - community listening sessions are one way to achieve this. Learn more

Tailored distribution

Distribution should be tailored to a community’s preferences. For example, before the pandemic, research showed that some Latino communities trusted information provided by schools and churches, as well as media sources like TV, radio and social media. In fact, some communities trusted radio more than TV because it is less sensational. Home-based education was also effective. It is essential to confirm these preferences in the current era of COVID-19 before beginning a campaign.

A Welcoming Environment

One way to address vaccine hesitancy is to create a welcoming environment:

  • Provide vaccine information in advance
  • Have an interpreter present
  • Don't rush the patients as they make choices
  • Give clear directions about what to expect
  • Be patient with follow-up questions

Never stop inquiring about patients’ vaccine status and to take time to address a parent’s concerns. For example, research has shown that Somali refugees are more open to vaccines if healthcare providers bring it up frequently and continue to offer the vaccine even after refusal.

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